Skip to main content

Full text of "North Carolina Symphony: Tips to Teachers - Chamber Orchestra"

See other formats


TTPST5 
°TeA c HFrS 



D O 





by°Adeline°m c cail 

f^oRTH cARPLINA ° 

Symph°ny ° 
Chamber - 

"orchestra 

CHIIgREN'S- 

Concerts- 

1^81-1^52° 



K.PALME.R. SI 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/northcarolinas198182nort 



TO TEACHERS 



By Adeline McCall 
CONTENTS 

2 Getting Ready for Your North Carolina Symphony Children's Concert 

THE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA . . . Season 1981 - 1982 

3 Information for Teachers on the Children's Concert Program 

3-5 JESU, JOY OF MAN'S DESIRING Bach 

6 THE TWO SONGS 

Simple Gifts 
In Baia Town 

7-9 APPALACHIAN SPRING SUITE Copland 

Dance 
Simple Gifts 

10 - 12 PEER GYNT SUITE No . 1 Grieg 

Morning 

Anitra's Dance 

In the Hall of the Mountain King 

11 THE PERCUSSION SCORE 

13 SYMPHONY No. 41 in C Major ("Jupiter") Mozart 

14-15 WILLIAM TELL Rossini 

Overture - Finale 

15 - 18 Movement and Music 

FREEDOM IN MOVEMENT EXPRESSION 

EXPLORING DIFFERENT TYPES OF FREE MOVEMENT 

19~21 Instructions for Making Percussion Instruments 

RATTLES 
TAMBOURINES 

22 ~ 24 Bibliography 

BOOKS 
FILMS 
FILMSTRIPS 



Tips to Teachers Copyright (?) 1981, by Adeline McCall 



Getting Ready For Your 

NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY CHILDREN'S CONCERT 

The Chamber Orchestra . . . Season 1981 - 1982 

James Ogle, Associate Conductor 
Jackson Parkhurst, Assistant Conductor 
Benjamin Swalin, Conductor Emeritus 

Start as early as possible to publicize the coming of 
THE NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY CHAMBER ORCHESTRA 
TO YOUR COMMUNITY 

1. Send pictures and articles to local papers with date, 
time and place of the children's concert. 

2. Arrange for radio and television announcements. 

3. Distribute memos to parents. 

4. See that Principals, Teachers, Cafeteria Managers, and 
School Administrators have correct information on the 
DATE, the DAY OF THE WEEK, and the HOUR of the children's 
concert set in their schedules. 

5. Schedule In-Service Teachers' Workshops to prepare for 
the children's program. Include the librarians. 

Order all materials for concert preparation as early as possible: 

RECORDINGS 

Bach Bowmar Orchestral Library - BOL #62 

Copland Seraphim S - 60198 

Grieg Vox - STPL 512.410 

Mozart RCA VICS - 1366 

Rossini Seraphim S - 60058 

SYMPHONY STORIES 

Each child should have his own individual copy of 
these booklets. Materials printed in Symphony Stories 
are copyrighted, and may not be duplicated. 

TIPS TO TEACHERS 

Information included is copyrighted. 

Address orders for all materials to: 

NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY 

Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education and 

Assistant Conductor 
P. 0. Box 28026 
Raleigh, NC 27611 
TELEPHONE (919) 733 - 2750 



INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS ON THE CHILDREN'S 

CONCERT PROGRAM 



Children's concerts for the 1981 - 1982 season of the North Carolina Symphony 
CHAMBER ORCHESTRA offer a stimulating variety of musical experiences with works 
by American, German, Norwegian, Austrian and Russian composers. Teachers 
will find the school's library resources helpful in providing books, filmstrips 
and films relating to the program. If these serve to awaken an interest in 
the concert it will be a good beginning. 

More important, of course, is to bring a love of music to your children by 
encouraging a great deal of quiet listening to the recordings. Let the beauty 
of the music create its own magic. By avoiding gimmicks and unrelated "props" 
you free the child to express his own inner feelings. It may be through 
movement, through an art form, or in a simple way -- through his own words. 

The opening number, a Chorale Prelude by Johann Sebastian Bach sets the mood 
at once with beautiful, free-flowing melodies that soothe and enchant the 
listener. The peaceful serenity of the music, which is communicated to children 
and grown-ups alike, seems to be an outpouring of Bach's own nature and an 
expression of his deeply religious feeling. 

Performing and creating music, in church or out, was to Bach a part of God's 
service. Throughout his life, from boyhood until almost the day of his death, 
he headed all his compositions with the letters "J. J." for "Jesu juva" (Jesus 
help me) and ended them with "S. D. G." (To God alone the praise). His 
productivity was astounding: Five complete sets of Church Cantatas — one for 
every Sunday of the church year; Christmas Oratorios; St. Matthew Passion; 
St. John Passion; B Minor Mass; Chorale Preludes; Preludes and Fugues for 
Organ and Clavier; Orchestral compositions; Keyboard works for harpsichord, 
clavichord, and piano; and three books of Suites. 

There was no one more humble than Johann Sebastian Bach. He said of himself, 
"I worked hard." And most of his contemporaries considered him a simple hard- 
working musician of a station no higher than a local cobbler or tailor. 

I. JESU, JOY OF MAN'S DESIRING B L #62 

Chorale Prelude Bowmar Orchestral 

Johann Sebastian Bach Library 
1685 - 1750 

Listening Highlights 

The children should listen to the recording as many times as necessary in 
order to discover that there are two contrasting melodies: 

1. The Chorale (Theme 1 and Theme 2) 

2. The decorative melody 



Listening Highlights , continued 

Explain to the children that the Chorale is the hy mn tune , and that the 
decorative melody is the creative freely improvised music played around the 
hymn. For a full explanation see Symphony Stories , page 2. 
The Chorale has two parts: 



Theme 1 



t f'iffir fir f 



Theme 2 



PPfep 



&*l\Srt 



'n'.^iiTiftrrU^* ii-firn^ ^ 



The Chorale moves slowly in a stately 3/4 meter. The decorative 
melody has an underlying "three" meter, but with three notes on each 
beat it is best conceived as a 9/8 meter; 



i 



rJftf J^t^flJifjJjj 



n 



u 



Things to do 

Have the children play the Chorale on melody instruments: 

Theme 1 - Small winds, recorders (Play twice) 
Theme 2 - Melody bells, violins (Play once) 
Theme 1 - Small winds, recorders (Play once) 

Listen to the recording many times, in an effort to "hear" how the 
Chorale and Decorative Theme are related. The decorative theme is heard 

first : 



^ Structure Dec. twice ... 

Chor . alone 

Dec . alone 

Chor. and Dec. together ... 

Dec . twice 

Chor. alone 

Dec. 

Chor. and Dec. together 

Dec. 

Chor. (Theme 2, new key) 

*Chor. = chorale; Dec. = decorative melody 

This is an ideal number to dance. Let the children divide themselves into 
three groups: Group I -Decorative melody 

Group II -Chorale Theme 1 

Group Ill-Chorale Theme 2 



.Dec. 

.Chor. 

.Dec. 

.Chor. and Dec. together 

, Dec. alone 

, Chor. and Dec. together 

.Dec. alone 

.Chor. and Dec. together 

.Chor. and Dec. together 



Abo ut the Composer 

. . .Johann Sebastian Bach, known the world over simply as "Bach," was born 
on a March day in 1685. His birthplace, Eisenach, Germany, was a 
delightful town at the foot of a steep mountain called the Wartburg. 

...Music was important in Eisenach. On the top of the mountain great singing 
contests took place hundreds of years before Columbus discovered America. 
Many years later Martin Luther lived in the town. Through the years people 
played and sang in their homes, in the churches, and even in the streets. 

...The family of musicians to bring the greatest fame to Eisenach was the 

family of Johann Sebastian. His Bach ancestors -- father, grandfathers and 
great grandfathers were all musicians. Once a year in Eisenach, there was 
a musical reunion of the Bachs. Young and old family members joined together 
for days of playing and singing. 

...As soon as Sebastian could hold a violin his father taught him to play. 
When he was eight he started to school. Latin, Greek and the Bible were 
the main subjects. But Sebastian had a sweet voice, and was allowed to 
sing in the choir. 

...Sebastian's father and mother died when he was ten, and he was sent to live 
with his older brother Cristoph. Although the brother was stern, he sent 
Sebastian to a fine school where he learned geography, natural science and 
other useful subjects. He also taught him to play the clavier. 

...When Sebastian was fifteen he had the good luck to be chosen as a choirboy 
at St. Michael's Church in Luneburg. " He lived here happily in a convent 
school where the monks were kind to him, taught him to play the organ and 
allowed him to study and copy music in their wonderful library. 

...After three happy years at Luneburg he applied for a job as organist at 
Arnstadt. The electors thought an eighteen year old boy was too young for 
the position but when they heard him play they hired him at once. And this 
was the beginning of the musical career of the greatest of all the Bachs. 

...As the years passed Bach went from one German city to another, serving as 
organist, composer, teacher and choir director. He wrote and copied by 
hand all the music performed at the hundreds of church services where his 
singers and instrumental groups provided the music. 

...During his busy life Bach found time to be a good father to his children; 
to teach them, write music for them and love them. He was married twice, 
and had twenty children. Three sons, Karl Philipp Emanuel, Wilhelm Friedmann, 
and Johann Christian were well known musicians. Bach himself had little fame 
until years after his death when Mendelssohn and Schumann began their work 
of reviving his priceless manuscripts, and proclaiming his genius to the world 

...Bach spent his last twenty-seven years in Leipzig, serving the school and 
church of St. Thomas. He became blind after two operations failed to restore 
his sight. He was brave and cheerful, continuing to work at composing, with 
the help of friends who wrote down the notes for him. 

...At his death a sad procession of friends and school boys followed Bach's body 
to its unmarked grave outside the walls of St. John's churchyard. 



The Two Son 



II. Song: SIMPLE GIFTS Shaker Spiritual 

Simple Gifts is a popular and well known Shaker Spiritual. Like most 
of the songs it was accompanied by some form of movement such as bowing, 
bending and turning. 

In William Walker's Foreword to his collection of FORTY EARLY AMERICAN 
SPIRITUAL SONGS, he says that the voices should sing without instrumental 
accompaniment. His advice to singers might well be followed today: 

"The nearest perfection in singing we arrive at is to pronounce 
the words and make the sounds as feeling as if the sentiments 
were our own. If singers when performing a piece of music could 
be as much captivated with the words and sounds as the author 
of the music is when composing it, . . . directions would be 
almost useless; they would pronounce, accent, swell, sing loud 
and soft where the words require it." 

For children this might be translated into your emphasizing clear articu- 
lation, and in telling them to watch the orchestra director throughout 
the singing for changes in tempo and dynamics. 

Before the audience is invited to stand and sing with the orchestra, 
your selected school instrumental group will play Simple Gifts . 
Follow the directions as given on the inside front cover of "Symphony 
Stories." 

Instruments to include in the Instrumental Group 

Winds: Recorders, flutes, small winds 

Bells : Melody bells, xylophones, resonator or tone bells. 

Strings : Violins, psalteries, cellos, violas 

Autoharps : These are included to stabilize the rhythm, 
and help the children play together. 

Playing instructions 

...The autoharps sound two G-chords as an introduction. Then 

play the chords as written above the score in "Symphony Stories." 
...Winds and strings play the entire song. 
...On the repeats bells are added. 

Song : IN BAIA TOWN Brazilian Folk Song 

Before t*he last number on the program the children will sing a second 
song with the orchestra — IN BAIA TOWN. The song is printed on the 
inside back cover of "Symphony Stories." Encourage the making of some 
simple percussion instruments which the children will bring to the 
concert and play as they sing. Follow the directions on page 16, 
opposite the song. 

Instructions for making rattles and tambourines are included in 
"Tips to Teachers." 



III. APPALACHIAN SPRING SUITE Seraphim S 

Dance 60198 

Simple Gifts 
Aaron Copland 
Nov. 14, 1900 

The Ballet, APPALACHIAN SPRING, was first performed by Martha Graham 

and her dancers in the Library of Congress on October 30th, 1944. 

The orchestra for this performance included only thirteen players. 

The next year Aaron Copland arranged some of the numbers as a Suite 

for chamber orchestra and it won the Pulitzer prize. 

On the occasion of Aaron Copland's eightieth birthday, with friends 
and fellow musicians assembled, he spoke with feeling of his admiration 
for Martha Graham, giving her full credit for his writing the music. 

In the score for APPALACHIAN SPRING the following description of the 
Ballet appears: 

"The action of the ballet concerns a pioneer celebration in 
the Pennsylvania hills in the early part of the last century. 
The bride-to-be and the young farmer-husband enact the emo- 
tions, joyful and apprehensive, their new domestic partner- 
ship invites. An older neighbor suggests now and then the 
rocky confidence of experience. A revivalist and his followers 
remind the new householders of the strange and terrible 
aspects of human fate. At the end the couple are left quiet 
and strong in their new house." 

The orchestral SUITE is in eight sections, played without interruption. 
In the very slow first section the characters are introduced, one 
by one. In each of the sections, Copland's original style displays 
his ability to flow freely with the choreographer's intent, making 
quick transitions in tempo and mood; changing from "folksy" music 
to soft passages expressing tenderness and love. 

DANCE 

The DANCE, which is the fifth section of the SUITE, follows a big 
celebration with square dancing and country fiddling. Copland 
describes the music as the dance of the Bride, conveying her feelings 
of "joy and fear and wonder." Introducing the opening theme, and 
continuing throughout as a sort of agitated underlying pulse (played 
by cellos, violas and reinforced at times with the French horn) is 
this staccato pattern: 



rm \rm rm 



The main theme with its ascending and descending scales is easily 
recognizable as it occurs again and again: 



/'rosto 




•-$■ 



^m 



g 



p « j 



£J=J 



After listening to the recording a number of times, the children 
will probably be able to identify the "scale" theme. The interludes 
in-between bring assertive accents in contrast to the "flighty 
scales." Listen for the impressive use of the timpani. 



Appalachian Spring Suite, continued 



Listening Highlights 
A Guide. . . 



Things to do : 
Movement 



DANCE 



Scale Theme - Flute and violins ascending 
Scale Theme - First violin, pizzicato 
Interlude - Heavy double accents: Timpani 
Scale Theme - Low strings 
Scale Theme - More instruments 
Scale Theme - Piccolo ascending 
Interlude - Heavy double accents 
Scale Theme - Orchestra 
Interlude - Slower tempo; Timpani 



Fast scale themes - shaking maracas , hand movements, 
running, head movements, tapping, children's ideas? 
Interludes - free body movement with whole body 



Finger painting. .. Scale themes and interludes 

SIMPLE GIFTS 

SIMPLE GIFTS is a set of five variations on the song, "The Gift to Be 
Simple." Aaron Copland found the song in a collection of Shaker melodies 
compiled by Edward D. Andrews, and published under the title, "The Gift 
to Be Simple." He says, "I borrowed the melody and used it almost 
literally." 




LtfLtflUf UfllfLrlLUj r^ i 



Listening Highlights 
A Guide. . . 



Things to do : 



1. Clarinet solo 

2. Oboe and bassoon 

Change of key - 2 parts 

3. Low strings - bass important 

Counterpoint 

A. Trumpet and trombone 
Counterpoint 

5. High winds, then full orchestra 
Timpani very important 

Encourage children to make up original body 
movement. There might be five groups? One child 
for solo; two for two instruments, etc., increas- 
ing the number as music indicates. Use children's 
ideas: Humming the melody? Scarves? Soft percus- 
sion instruments? 



About the Composer 

Aaron Copland, born in Brooklyn on November 14, 1900, is today generally 
considered to be America's leading composer. You will find information on 
his early years in Symphony Stories . The comments here are to help you know 
a little more about the delightful, generous human being he is, and to gain 
more insight into his philosophy and his working habits. 

Copland never writes music for something he doesn't like. For several years 
his income came from work for big commercial movie companies. He avoided 
descending to the level of the usual Hollywood scores. He had great influ- 
ence on some of the resident routine composers to raise their standards. He 
was always a composer of "prestige" -- brought in from the outside. 

...His working habits may explain his artistic success: 

1. He studies the cue sheet with its timing and description of sequences. 

2. He views the film a few times. 

3. He sees the film again and again while writing. 

4. He runs individual scenes over and over to get his musical ideas. He 
extracts the essence from the film itself, instead of imposing 

his music on it. 

5. He is \/ery careful to see that the music is appropriate. To quote him: 
"I don't like to hear a piano in the music for an outdoor scene." 

6. He orchestrates his own music. 

7. He embraces native folk sources and jazz, but his style is original. 
It has been said that Copland had more influence on American folk 
music than it has had on him. 

...Copland's style has undergone changes; it might be roughly divided into 
two stages: 

I. Formative stage (small works; The Cat and the Mouse ) 
Symphony for Organ and Orchestra 

Dissonance of the twenties (A composer with modern ideas in 
those days was thought of as a naughty boy, but all young 
composers were exploring new and shocking sounds.) 
European influence with strong American flavor 
II. Music for the Theatre (1925) 
Incorporation of jazz 
Increased leanness in texture 
Intricate and abstract patterns 
Ballet 

Works in abstract form 
Economy of means; transparency 
Folk music 

...Copland has taught, lectured, conducted orchestras, moved about the 
United States, Mexico, Latin America and other countries. He is a board 
member on Musical Foundations; and, most important, he has encouraged the 
formation of a Young Composers' Group. His influence on and interest in 
young composers has been considerable. 

...Aaron Copland's friends will tell you he is modest, not egocentric, and 
is a warm, sociable person. 



10 



IV. PEER GYNT SUITE No. 1 
Morning 

Anitra's Dance 

In the Hall of the Mountain King 
Edward Hagerup Grieg 
1845 - 1907 



Vox 

STPL 512.410 



Edward Grieg wrote the music in the PEER GYNT SUITE for Henrik 
Ibsen's play, "Peer Gynt." The first performance of the play, with 
Grieg's orchestral music was on February 24th, 1876. The play 
was a great success, and so was the music. Have your children 
read the story of Peer Gynt, printed on page 6 and 7 of "Symphony 
Stories." 

MORNING 



The music is intended to describe a mood just before dawn as the sky 
gradually brightens, the birds sing, and finally the sun appears. 
The gentle, smooth- flowing melody is repeated over and over, each time 
varied by the use of different instruments and key changes. 



Listening Highlights 
A Guide. . . 



Things to do 



1. Flute 

2. Oboe (rising higher at end of phrase) 

3. Flute (change of key) 

4. Oboe 

5. Flute and oboe (short dialogue) 

6. Full orchestra 

7. Strings above, cello below (new theme) 

8. Horn solo, pizzicato string accompaniment 

9. Bassoon and oboe, string accompaniment 

10. Violin solo - clarinet and flute bird trills 

11. Flute then bassoon 

...Help the children, with repeated listenings 
to recognize the instruments as listed above. 

...This is a beautiful opportunity for free movement, 
Let children suggest ways of working it out. 
Encourage smooth-sustained-controlled use of body. 



IN THE HALLOF THE MOUNTAIN KING 

The theme below is repeated eighteen times, becoming faster and louder: 




Cello Basses pizzxcato 



On the third repetition the key changes; on the seventh it moves up; 
on the 9th and 10th strings are emphasized; the orchestra builds up 
beginning with the 13th repetition; a change of key at the 16th 
intensifies the final tension, ending with the coda. 



Things to do 



Obviously this exciting music, with the story of 
wild trolls and gnomes, calls for dancing, puppetry, 
dramatization, mask-making, etc. 



ANITRA'S DANCE VOX 

Peer Gynt Suite No. 1 STPL 512.410 

Grieg PL 12.410 

THE PERCU SSI N SCORE 
Percussion Score -- ANITRA'S DANCE 
See the outside back cover of "Symphony Stories" 
Teaching Procedures 

1. Have each child prop up the score on his desk or table by placing a 
thick book on top of page 16. 

2. The percussion score is for classroom use only. Be sure that your 
children understand this. Do not bring percussion instruments to 
the concert. 

3. Before rehearsing the score have all the required instruments at 
each child's place ahead of time. 

H ere are the instruments needed : 

TAMBOURINES 
TRIANGLES 
MARACAS 
RHYTHM STICKS 
WOOD BLOCKS 
DRUMS 

JINGLE-BELLS 
CYMBALS 

4. Have the children listen to the recording several times before 
picking up the instruments. 

5. Looking at the percussion score, see if the children can identify and 
explain the meter (3/4 - three quarter notes in each measure). 

6. Count the meter out loud, clapping the first beat in each measure. 
One Two Three / One Two Three / One Two Three / etc. 

7. With big arm swings let everyone "conduct" 3/4 meter: 



/• V 



•2- 

8. Find different note patterns, write them on the board and let the 
children clap or play them on a drum: 






About the Composer 



Edvard Grieg was a national hero in Norway. Hans von Bulow called him 

the "Chopin of the North." Grieg himself felt that a composer "of the North" 

might imply that he belonged to all the Scandinavian countries. To clarify 

his stand that he was definitely Norwegian, not Scandinavian, he said: 

"The national characteristics of the Norwegians, Swedes, Danes are wholly 

different and their music differs just as much. I am not an exponent 

of Scandinavian music, but of Norwegian." 

As a nationalist composer Grieg drew his inspiration from native 
folk songs and rustic dances. He never used them literally but let 
his imagination transform them into his own original rhythms and 
melodies . 

Once a great Norwegian violinist and composer said to him: "Do you 
see the fjords over there — the lakes and streams, the valleys and 
forests, and the blue sky over all? They have made my music — not I. 
Frequently when I am playing, it seems to me as if I merely made mechanical 
motions and were only a silent listener while the Soul of Norway sings 
in my soul." 

Years later it was Grieg who became the silent listener while the "Soul 
of Norway" sang in his soul. But the cause for Norwegian music was not 
won without constant perseverance and frequent discouragement. 

Early in 1864 it was Grieg's good fortune to become a friend of a young 
Norwegian musician named Rikard Nordraak, composer of the Norwegian 
national anthem. Nordraak introduced Grieg to his personal collection 
of Norwegian folk songs and dances. He, too, wanted to create a Norwegian 
music in the tradition of the Norse race. Together they vowed to dedicate 
their lives towards freeing their country's music from German influences 
and encouraging the use of native folk sources. 

At about this time he became engaged to his own first cousin, Nina 
Hagerup, a talented singer who later popularized his songs. Because 
of her parents' objections the marriage was delayed until 1867. Then 
in 1869 the tragic death of their first and only child, a thirteen- 
month-old girl plunged Edvard Grieg into a depression. 

His despair was unexpectedly relieved when he received a letter from 
Rome, full of warmth, encouragement and appreciation. It was from Franz 
Liszt telling him that he was profoundly impressed by his Sonata in F 
for violin and piano. He added: "I could hope that you are finding 
in your own country the success and encouragement you deserve." 

Eventually, as Grieg continued to compose and his fame spread throughout 
Europe, his own country did encourage and appreciate him. The government 
granted him an annual subsidy which assured him of financial security. 

Among his many compositions his Concerto in A Minor is probably the most 
frequently performed. But his incidental music to Henrik Ibsen's play, 
Peer Gynt , is his most popular work. The Viennese critic, Eduard 
Hanslick prophesied that Ibsen's drama would survive only because of 
Grieg's music. 



13 



V. "JUPITER" SYMPHONY - No. 41 in C Major 
Fourth Movement 
Allegro Molto 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 
1756 - 1791 



RCA 

VICS - 1366 



This amazing symphony, one of Mozart's greatest, was written when the 
composer was thirty- two years old, and completed in the short period 
of six weeks. In three more years Mozart was dead, leaving the world 
to wonder how a man of thirty-five, even a genius, could produce so 
much music in so short a time. 

Aaron Copland, writing about Mozart in his book, Copland on Music 
(dedicated to Harold Clurman, published by Doubleday), says this: 

"We composers listen to Mozart with a certain awe and wonder, 
not unmixed with despair. Mozart was probably the most 
reasonable of the world's great composers. It is the happy 
balance between flight and control, between sensibility and 
self-discipline, simplicity and sophistication of style that 
is his particular province. By comparison, Bach seems weighted 
down with the world's cares. Mozart tapped the source from 
which all music flows, expressing himself with a spontaneity 
and refinement and breath-taking Tightness that has never since 
been duplicated." 

Musical Highlights 

The "Jupiter" Symphony is in four movements, the typical 
structure of the classic symphony of Haydn and Mozart's time. 

In the Fourth Movement, which is very fast, you will hear 
the first theme, an old church tune, repeated many times: 



-///Cf'^^^ 



■ feE 



ODD 



¥ 



m 



amw 



SB 



Play this hymn tune for children until they are thoroughly 
familiar with it. When they listen enough times to the recording 
they should be able to recognize it. You might have them raise 
their hands, tap lightly with a pencil, draw a design in space, 
or make a chart each time they hear it. If the movement seems 
long you may want to shorten it. 

Other musical points on which to focus listening are: 
Scale passages - up and down (Principal Theme Part 2) 
Episodic material (Subordinate Theme) 
Changes of Key 

The extent to which you involve children in listening details 
will depend upon their knowledge and their experience. 



For most children, keep it simple. See if they can recognize 
1) the hymn tune, 2) the scale passages, 3) the sound of the 
music when it is different from 1 and 2. Enjoying the sound 
of Mozart is the first priority. 



14 



VI. WILLIAM TELL - Overture 
Finale 

Giacchino Rossini 
1792 - 1868 



Seraphim S - 60058 



The Overture to the opera WILLIAM TELL has sometimes been called a sym- 
phonic poem because it is descriptive of the happenings in the opera and 
also because it is a fine serious example of Rossini's orchestral 
writing. 

The Overture, despite its length, has survived and is a favorite with 
concert audiences. 

The music is exciting and appealing to children. The bold first theme 
beginning with a fanfare is easily recognized as it is repeated through- 
out the Finale. 




The story of William Tell will always be a favorite with young people 
seeking the excitement of danger and adventure. It offers children an 
opportunity to write and produce a puppet show or to dramatize the 
patriotic Swiss struggle for freedom. 

Involved in either production will be a study of Switzerland. Some of 
the interesting facts about this small country might be brought to light: 

1. Mountains cover three-fifths of the country. 

2. The other two-fifths is taken up by valleys and lakes. 

3. Switzerland has a great variety of weather and climate. 

4. Grapes and other fruits grow in the low valleys. Higher up 
there are fields of grain, walnut trees, oaks and elms. Still 
higher are the pines and at the top the snow-covered peaks. 

5. In summer the village shepherds lead their sheep, cows and 
goats to the high pastures for grazing, bringing them down 
to be milked at evening. 

6. The musical instrument beloved by mountaineers is the 
Alpine horn. 

7. The mountains made patriots of the Swiss. For centuries they 
lived cut off from the rest of the world, and developed a 
fine spirit of independence. 

Things to do : 

Find Swiss songs in your music texts and let children sing them. 

Explain Yodelling. Try it with your classes. 

Have children make a map of Switzerland. 

Find out why Swiss banks are so important in today's economy. 



15 



About the Composer 



, Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, born in 1792 in an Italian town on the Adriatic 
Sea, had every opportunity to absorb music at an early age. His mother was 
a fine singer, and his father was the town trumpeter. Because of his out- 
spoken political views father Rossini found himself in jail, and his wife 
took her son to Bologna where in a short time she made a success as prima 
donna in opera buffa (comic opera). Once released from jail the father 
joined his wife and son and was hired as trumpeter in the opera's orchestra. 

.Both parents wanted their son to have a good music education. Eventually 
they found a teacher who taught him to play the piano, to read notes, and 
to sing well enough to be a boy soprano in the church. When he was ten 
years old his mother's voice wore out, and before long the boy was able to 
help support the family by singing in the theatre and playing horn in the 
orchestra beside his father. After several years he entered the Conserva- 
tory of Bologna where he studied cello and harmony and composition. 

.When his teacher told him that while long years of study were necessary 
to compose church music, he already knew as much as most opera composers. 
The boy's answer was: "Then I need nothing more — for operas are all I 
want to write." About this time his family was having financial problems. 

, So Rossini left the Conservatory and all further study to become a composer 
of operas. He was only eighteen when he made a success of his first opera, 
which was produced in the Italian city of Venice. He was twenty-four when 
he wrote his popular opera, "The Barber of Seville." It took him only 
thirteen days to complete the entire opera. By the time he was thirty- 
seven Rossini had written thirty-seven operas — one for each year of his 
life. 

.Rossini was now famous all over Europe. He had married his leading lady, 
Isabella Colbran, and together they travelled from city to city, enjoying 
his great popularity. Even Napoleon himself, arriving in the same town 
took nothing away from Rossini's fame. When the two met Napoleon is 
quoted as saying: "There need be no ceremony between emperors." 

.Rossini's success was phenomenal. In Italy, more performances of his operas 

were given than those of all other composers put together. It was the same 

in Leipzig, London, Paris, and all the great European cities. In some opera 
houses the whole season was given up to his works alone. 

.In Rossini's operas there were no long interludes of half-spoken, half-sung 
"recitative." He used the orchestra all the way through. If an important 
melody was played by a horn, he made the accompanying parts softer so that 
his musical idea came through clearly. 

.Although Rossini became famous as a composer of opera buffa, he turned to 
opera seria (serious or tragic opera) when he married the prima donna who 
could sing nothing else. His masterpiece, "William Tell" is a grand opera, 
lasting over five hours. It is rarely performed, but the Overture to 
"William Tell" is familiar to television and concert audiences almost 
everywhere. 



:f 



MOVEMENT AND M U 



Freedom i n Movement Expression 



ONE DISCOVERY OF PRIMITIVE MAN was that sound and movement expressed his 

feelings better than the language he had invented. As he saw beauty, 
felt love, anger or grief, he needed ways of expressing himself that 
went beyond words. When a friend of Felix Mendelssohn composed some 
words to be set to one of his "lieder" he returned them, saying: 

"Music is more definite than speech, and to want to explain 
it by means of words is to make the meaning obscure. . . . 
Words seem to me vague if we compare them to true music 
that fills the soul with a thousand things better than words." 

THROUGH RHYTHMIC GESTURES of hands, arms, shoulders, head, feet and torso, 
dancing came to include every movement the body was capable of making, 
even the fluttering of eyelids. As with primitive man the many non-word 
ways of communicating are a vital and important part of a child's 
growing up, and a means of helping him to identify meaningfully with 
the world around him. Structural limitations, imposed too early from 
an adult standard can hamper and delay the process. 

MUCH OF CHILDREN'S BODY MOVEMENT comes from an innate necessity to move 
and a love of movement for its own sake. Joan Russell, a leading 
authority on Modern Dance Education asserts: 

"The child must be free to experience dance which grows 
directly from his personal movement expression." 

IF THIS PHILOSOPHY needs any reinforcement, it was expressed on the occasion 
of the Scripps American Dance Festival award to Martha Graham: 

"To Martha Graham, most American of artists whose genius 
is synonymous with the modern dance. Great dancer and great 
choreographer, she is a supreme innovator. 

In her invention of an entire new idiom, she has contributed 
an unprecedented technique to the vocabulary of dance. Pioneer 
of a new art form, she has had unequaled impact throughout the 
world. Eloquent in her absorption in mankind's tragedy and 
comedy, she has created a theater that is rich in association 
and spare in its focus on essence. 

IN HER BELIEF THAT INNER EMOTION IS REVEALED THROUGH 
MOVEMENT, SHE HAS BARED THE MOST HIDDEN OF PASSIONS." 

MARTHA GRAHAM'S OWN WORDS as a part of her acceptance were: "Everyone 
has only one truly personal possession — his own body." 

ERS WHO ARE HELPING CHILDREN to understand music should not be 
concerned with structured "dancing" but rather with freeing them 
to express their inner feelings through body movement. 



17 



Exploring Different Type s of Free Movement 

I. BASIC MOVEMENTS 

Locomotor -- Jumping, running, walking, marching, hopping on one 
or both feet; galloping, tip-toe stepping; sliding, 
stamping; leaping, kicking, whirling, turning; skipping. 

Axial — Swinging, swaying, shaking, bending, twisting, stretch- 
ing; crawling, rocking, rolling; moving head, shoulders, 
hands, ankles, wrists; sustained movement with arms, 
backs, legs, hands, fingers, toes, eyes, mouths; 
fast percussive movement with arms, backs, legs, hands, 
fingers, toes, eyes, mouths 

Combinations — Run and jump; skip and whirl; walk and leap; whirl 
and fall down; swing, bend and stretch; rock and 
lie down 



II. FREE MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY OBSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

People -- Mother, father, grandparent, baby, postman, 
policeman, milkman, tennis plaver, gardener, 
garbage man, house painter, nurse, doctor, 
dentist, old lady, musician, orchestra conductor 

Animals & — Dogs, cats, squirrels, birds, frogs, worms, 
Insects caterpillers , mosquitos, grasshoppers, cockroaches, 
ants; Animals of farm, circus, and zoo 

Mechanical — Egg beater, windshield wiper, washing machine, dish- 
Inventions washer; train, boat, airplane, helicopter, space 

ship; Steam shovel, crane, wheels, bicycles, clock 
parts; oil well pump, printing press, bulldozer 

Natural -- Rain, snow, hail, wind, fog, lightning, hurricane, 
Phenomena waterfall; planting, harvesting; movement of 

planets; landslide, earthquake, explosion of volcano 



III. FREE MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY A MOOD OR EMOTION 

Mood — Angry, bored, sad, happy, quiet, sleepy 
Emotion — Joyful, surprised, funny, crazy, depressed 

IV. MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY SOUNDS 

Outdoors -- Lawn mowers, sirens, ambulances, fire trucks, 

automobile horns, clock tower chimes, loudspeakers 

Indoors -- Ticking clocks, alarms, refrigerators, furnaces, 
running water 



18 



V. MOVEMENT SUGGESTED BY VISUAL STIMULI 



Picture or -- Response to linear design, texture, color; 
Textile Design Wallpaper pattern 



VI. CREATIVE MOVEMENT ORIGINATING WITH IDEAS IN: 

A Story , Opera , Play, or Poem 
An incident narrated by a child 

VII. FREE MOVEMENT STIMULATED BY LISTENING TO MUSIC, EXPRESSING AN AWARENESS OF: 

Dynamics (Loud - soft) 

Tempo (Fast- slow) 

Pitch (High - low - same) 

Duration (Long - short) 

Melodic direction (Up, down, same, skip, repeat) 

Pattern (Even - uneven) 

Staccato (Bumpy, rough) 

Legato (Smooth flowing) 

Pulse (Beat) 

Meter (Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Nine, Eleven, etc.) 

Phrase, Section 

Stanza - Refrain 

Mood (Scary, sweet, sad, exciting, happy, pompous) 

Form or Structure 

ABA A A B B 

ABC A A A A A, etc. 

RONDO A B A C A D A 



A TIP : Let the music tell the child through repeated listening. 
Call each musical term by its right name. 



19 
INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING RATTLES AND TAMBOURINES 



Rattles were among the first instruments of antiquity, and they have played a significant 
role in the long history of man's music making. Whether of ancient or modern construction, 
rattles are mainly of two types: 1) the strung, braided or woven rattle in which various 
small, hard objects are bunched together; 2) the gourd rattle— or its cousin, the rattling 
seed pod. 




MAILING TUBE RATTLE 

This is the easiest kind of rattle to make, and a good project for primary children 

Materials needed 

A sturdy cardboard mailing tube with a removable cap, 8" - 12" in length and about 

1 1/2 inches in diameter. If the top of the cap and the bottom of the tube have 

metal ends, the sound of the rattle will be improved. 

Several paint brushes 

Several colors of poster paint or enamel 

Glue or rubber cement 

Masking tape 

Pebbles, buckshot, rice, dried beans or any other kind of rattling objects. 

What to do 

Remove the cover, and put the pebbles, etc. inside the tube. Apply a thin coat 
of glue to the tube where the cap fits on. Slide the cap back over the tube and 
tape it onto the tube at the joint. Paint and decorate the rattle. Finish with a 
coat of shellac if poster paints are used. If you want a handle, paint a one-inch 
band of glue or cement around the tube, close to the top. Wrap doubled yarn or 
ribbon several times around the cemented band. Tie the ends tightly, leaving a 
three - or four - inch loop. Each child may hang his rattle on his own nail for a 
classroom display. 



COTTAGE CHEESE CARTON RATTLE 



Materials needed 

One cottage cheese carton with a tight-fitting plastic lid 

A small handful of dried beans - for a loud rattle 

A small handful of rice - for a soft rattle 

Ice pick 

A piece of pliable wire, or a string 

What to do 




Turn the carton upside down. With the ice pick, punch two holes in the rim on 
opposite sides of the carton. Thread the wire (or string) through the holes across 
the bottom of the carton. Allow enough wire to make a convenient handle. Fasten 
the wire by looping the two ends together and twisting them back around the wire as 
far as the holes on each side. If string is used for the handle, knot the ends, and 
shove the knot back to one of the holes. Put the beans or rice inside the carton, 
and snap the plastic top back in place. If you want to paint or decorate the 
carton, first remove the wax surface with a solvent or cleaning fluid. 



:; 



TAMBOURI N E S 



The two types of tambourines, one rectangular, and the other circular, 
described below, are simple to construct from materials that are inexpensive, 
and readily available. Many variants on these can be developed through 
combining children's and teacher's ideas. 



RECTANGULAR CIGAR BOX TAMBOURINE 



Materials needed 



1 cigar box (wooden, if available) 

Bottle caps or tin roofing discs - 8 or 12 

4 fine finishing nails as long as depth of cigar box 

1 large nail 

Hammer 

Hand drill (the bit should be smaller than the nail in diameter) 

Pencil and ruler 

Sharp cutting instrument, such as X-acto, with blade 

Colored plastic tape 

What to do 



If bottle caps are used, flatten them with a hammer, 
a hole in the center of each with a large nail. Cut 
Reinforce all four sides of the box with plastic tape 
and out. Mark a rectangular window in the center of 
the window 3/4 to 1 inch wide and at least 3/4 inch 1 
of the metal discs. Cut out each 
Drill a fine hole through the top 
penetrating almost to the bottom. 
down in the frame until the point 
three metal discs on the nail, and 
of the frame. Be sure the hole in 



window along the pe 

rim of the box, at 

Gently insert the 

comes through into 

continue to hammer 

each disc is big e 



jingle freely. Use the same procedure for the other 



Remove cork and punch 
the lid off the cigar box. 
, banding it around inside 
each side of the box. Make 
onger than the diameter 
ncil marks with a sharp blade 
the central point, and 
finishing nail, tapping it 
the window. Slip two or 

it into the bottom part 
nough to allow it to 
three windows. 




Materials needed 



CHEESE BOX TAMBOURINE 



Type A -- Made from Bottom of Box 




1 wooden cheese box of any size, 5 1/2 inches or larger in diameter (Use the bottom 

half only, and save the lid for Type B tambourine) 

A spool of thin, pliable wire 

Metal roofing discs 

Sharp cutting blade 

Plastic (masking) tape 



What to do 



21 



Reinforce the circumference of the cheese box with plastic tape, as described 
for the cigar box. Cut windows at evenly spaced intervals around the frame, 
leaving one section without a window as a place to hold the tambourine. Since the 
wooden frame is too thin to take a nail, the jingles have to be wired on in this 
way: Measure the depth of the frame; double it; add two inches. Cut pieces of 
wire this length. You will need one piece for each window. Punch two holes in the 
frame at the central point, one above and one below the window opening. The holes 
should be spaced so that they are closer to the top and bottom of the frame than to 
the edges of the window. Push a piece of wire through the top hole, starting from 
the inside of the frame. Pull the wire through on the outside, but leave an inch 
of wire protruding from the hole on the inside. 

Slip the wire through the metal discs, and pull the discs up into the center of the 
window. Lace the wire through the bottom hole, bring it back up on the inside of 
the frame, and slip it again through the holes in the metal discs. Pull the wire 
as tight as possible up to the hole where you started. Twist the two ends of wire 
together. Cut off any extra wire, and flatten the twisted ends against the inside 
of the frame. When all the windows have been wired with discs, wrap a band of plastic 
tape around the inside of the rim to cover up the ends of the wire. 

ROUND CHEESE BOX TAMBOURINE 

Type B -- Made from Lid of the Box 



Materials needed 

Cheese box top, 5 1/2 inches or larger in diameter 

A spool of thin, pliable wire 

Jingle bells from ten cent store (sleigh bells) 

Plastic or masking tape 

Ice pick 

What to do 




Bind the circumference of the lid, inside and out with tape. On the outside rim 
make two pencil marks 1/2 inch apart. Skip two inches, and make two more marks 1/2 
inch apart, continuing similarly around the rim. Leave the last space, about the 
width of the hand, without markings. Pierce the holes with an ice pick. Measure 
a piece of wire eight inches longer than the circumference of the frame. Begin 
at the first marking and push the wire through the hole, starting from the inside 
of the frame. Leave about four inches of wire hanging. Thread two nickel jingle 
bells onto the wire, and slide them down to the frame. Then push the wire through 
the second hole, pull it taut and lace it back to the outside through the third hole 
Slip on two more jingle bells and continue in this way around the frame, stringing 
two bells together at each pair of holes. 

When you have laced the bells all around, pull each wire tightly back from 
the end hole, and wrap it three or four times around the connecting wire on 
the inside of the frame. In both types of cheese box tambourines, the wooden 
top or bottom of the box will serve as a head. But if the tone quality is not 
satisfactory you may want to tack on a skin drum head. 



22 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



About Instruments and the Orchestra 



For the Teacher 



BOOKS 



Stewart, Madeau THE MUSIC LOVER'S GUIDE TO THE INSTRUMENTS Van Nostrand 

OF THE ORCHESTRA Reinhold Company 

1980 
Foreword by Yehudi Menuhin 
This is a fine reference book for all 
school libraries. The English author, 
Madeau Stewart, a professional musician, 
discusses the eighteen principal instru- 
ments that make up the modern orchestra 
in the order in which they appear on the 
page of a score - from piccolo to double 
bass - and explains how each works and how 
it is played. She discusses the main stages 
in the development of the instruments with 
illustrations of orchestral repertoire. The 
book is lavishly illustrated with pictures 
in full color. In the preface Berlioz is 
quoted as saying: 

"It is not enough that the artist 

should be well prepared for the 

public, the public must also be 

well prepared for what it is going 

to hear." 

For the Child THE BOY WHO LOVED MUSIC Viking 

This is the story of Karl, a young horn 
player, and his life in the great European 
castle of Esterhaza. It is based on his- 
torical fact, the composition of Haydn's 
"Farewell" Symphony, in 1772. Colorful 
illustrations. 

Note: Both books from Raleigh-Wake County, 
Supervisor's Music Library 



23 



About Composers 



Geiringer, Karl 

Hoist, Imogen 
Manton, Jo 
Podojill, Catherine 

Reingold, Carmel B. 
Wheeler, Opal 



BACH 



THE BACH FAMILY: SEVEN GENERATIONS OF 
CREATIVE GENIUS, illustrated 

BACH 

A PORTRAIT OF BACH 

TO GOD ALONE THE GLORY, illustrated 
(Children, grades 1-5) 

BACH, REVOLUTIONARY OF MUSIC 

SEBASTIAN BACH, THE BOY FROM THURINGIA 



Music Reprint 
1980 

Crowell 

Abelard-Schuman 

Winston 
1979 

Watts 

Dutton 



Berger, Arthur 
Copland, Aaron 
Copland, Aaron 
Copland, Aaron 



COPLAND 

AARON COPLAND 

COPLAND ON MUSIC 

OUR NEW MUSIC 

APPALACHIAN SPRING 
Record and Filmstrip 
9 MA 42 Set 



Oxford 
Doubleday 
Whittlesey House 
Educational Audio 



Day, Lillian 
Deucher, Sybil 
Horton, John 



GRIEG 

GRIEG 

EDVARD GRIEG, BOY OF THE NORTHLAND 

GRIEG 

Master Musicians No. M 169, illustrated 



Hyperion 

Dutton 

Littlefield 



Davenport, Marcia 

Deutsch, Otto Erich 

Einstein, Alfred 
Hutchings, Arthur 



MOZART 

MOZART 

A delightful biography; interesting 

and readable. Excellent bibliography 

MOZART - A DOCUMENTARY BIOGRAPHY 
Translated by Eric Blom 

MOZART, HIS CHARACTER AND HIS WORK 

MOZART: THE MAN, THE MUSICIAN 
320 illustrations, 170 in color 
A fascinating book which would be 
a fine acquisition in all libraries 



Scribner 



Stanford University 
Stanford, CA 

Oxford 

Schirmer Books 

MacMillan 

1976 



Komroff, Manuel 



MOZART (young readers) 



Knopf 



:- 



Wheeler, Opal and 
Deucher, Sybil 

Woodford, Peggy 

Young, Percy M. 



MOZART , continued 
MOZART, THE WONDER BOY 

MOZART 

MOZART (young readers) 



Dutton 

Walck 
D. White 



Stendhal 



Weinstock, Herbert 



ROSSINI 
LIFE OF ROSSINI 

ROSSINI, A Biography, illustrated 



University of 
Washington Press 

Knopf 



About Appalachia 
Evald, Wendy APPALACHIA 



Shul, Peg 
Toone, Betty L. 



CHILDREN OF APPALACHIA, illustrated 
(young readers) 

APPALACHIA: THE MOUNTAINS, THE PLACE 
AND THE PEOPLE (young readers) 



Gnomon Press 
Messner 

Watts 



About the Shakers 



Faber, Doris 
Williams, John S. 

Yolen, Jane 



THE PERFECT LIFE: THE SHAKER IN AMERICA 
THE SHAKERS, A BRIEF SUMMARY 



SIMPLE GIFTS: THE STORY OF THE SHAKERS, 
illustrated 



F S & G 

Shaker Museum 
Foundation, 
Old Chatham, NY 



A RESOURCE BOOK 
Filmstrips and Films 

The most comprehensive listing of filmstrips on all subjects is the 
1980 edition of INDEX to 35 mm. EDUCATIONAL FILMSTRIPS, published by 
the University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, 
California, 90007. There is a similar index on FILMS.